The process of exchanging information through the Internet follows some rules and regulations. These rules and regulations are called Internet Protocols. This protocol is used to transmit data across all areas of the network. The core of the Internet system is the TCP/IP protocol. Also, some other common protocols are UDP, FTP, HTTP, TELNET, PPP, POP3 SPX, IPX, etc.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol):-
TCP/IP is a significant protocol for exchanging information over the network or the Internet. Since TCP/IP contains multiple protocols, it is called TCP/IP Protocol Suite. The backbone of the Internet system is the TCP/IP.
TCP and IP are two separate protocols. TCP’s work is to divide the data into multiple smaller packets (Data Packet) and re-create the original data by enclosing the packets. On the other hand, The work of an IP is to deliver those data packets correctly to a specific computer address in a specific way.
There are a total of five levels of TCP/IP Protocol:-
1. Physical Layer:-
This is the First Layer or the Lower Layer of TCP/IP. At this level, connections are made between two or more devices. There is no TCP/IP protocol at this level. However, it supports the LAN or WAN protocol.
2. Data Link Layer:-
This is the Second Layer of TCP/IP. It is located above the Physical Layer. Like the physical layer, this layer does not have its own TCP/IP protocol. But it supports the LAN or WAN protocol.
In fact, Physical Layer and Data Link Layer both act as a host of a network layer.
3. Network layer:-
This is the Third Layer of TCP/IP. It is located above the Data Link Layer. This layer basically helps in data exchange. IP is active at this level in TCPIP protocols. In IP, multiple data packets are sent to the right destination in the right way. The Network Layer user is notified when a packet does not reach the specified address. The network layer also helps to send the same data packet to multiple addresses.
4. Transport Layer:-
This is the Fourth Layer of TCP/IP. It is located above the Network Layer. The transport layer helps to receive the data packet from the network layer and deliver it to the application layer. At this level, TCP and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols are active. TCP separates the data segment from the Datagram, sorts it by serial number, forms the complete data, and sends it to the application layer.
5. Application Layer:-
This is the Fifth and Highest Layer of the TCP/IP model. It is located above the Transport Layer. This layer allows the computer to work by logging in to a remote corner. At this layer, SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), or Telnet protocol is active. E-mail exchange or file transfer SMTP and FTP help in the work respectively.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol):-
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a transport layer protocol. It is very simple and relies on datagram (collection of multiple data packets). With this protocol, data packets are received from the network layer and sent to the application layer.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol):-
FTP is a part of the TCP/IP protocol. It is used to transfer files between computers connected to the Internet. The FTP operates depending on the principles of the client/server application. In this case, the computer where the files are stored is called FTP Server. This type of data, text, program, image, graphics, sound, or audio-video or music may contain. In which case the client computers log in with the server and request the required file. Similarly, any file can be transferred from the client computer to the server.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol):-
HTTP’s full meaning is Hypertext Transfer Protocol. In modern computer applications, different colored (blue) text can be seen lined up in different places. Placing the mouse pointer on it changes the color of the text. These texts are called Hypertext.
HTTP is a protocol that helps to transfer hypertext between two or more computers. Hypertexts are written using the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) when creating web pages. With this Hypertext, a hyperlink is created using HTML code. Clicking on that link displays the information on another page. The information stored on the World Wide Web (www) is transferred to the client computer via http. Client / Server Application Policy http works depending on. In this case, the user (Client) clicks on Hypertext from his computer to communicate with the server (Server) to find out the information and request the server to get the information. The server transfers that information (hypertext) to the user’s computer via http or hypertext transfer protocol – ftp, SMTP , Telnet, etc. also coordinate with the protocol.
Example:- What is E-Commerce Business?
Telnet is one of the simplest tool or protocol of the Internet. With the help of the Remote Login method, the local computer can be connected to the remote computer, and various programs, files, databases, etc can be used there. On the other hand, the technique of connecting the remote computer with the remote / host computer by User ID and Password is called ‘Remote Log-in’. Telnet also works on the Client. For the information, the local computer requests the remote/host computer to receive the request. The remote computer accepts the request and provides the information to the local computer.
PPP- Point to Point Protocol
POP3 – Post Office Protocol, Version 3
SPX – Sequenced Packet Exchange
IPX – Internetwork Packet Exchange
PPPOE – Point to Point Protocol Over Ethernet.